Workforce Housing Studies


The following studies look at both the viability and need for affordable housing around the country. These studies demonstrate the clear need in society for housing for the working middle-class near urban centers.

A May 2016 analysis released by ULI Boston/New England’s Housing and Economic Development Council, in conjunction with the Metropolitan Area Planning Council, found a significant shortage of homes to rent or own that are affordable for a family of four earning $75,000 or less a year. The study authors argue that if Metro Boston wants to build on its reputation of being a world-class city, the region must build housing to accommodate the growing workforce for the sake of equality and economic opportunity. You can read the initial report here: the-middle/


A January 2016 study by APD Solutions for the counties near Atlanta, Georgia, found that households with an earned income from 60 to 120% of the area median income are having difficulty securing decent housing in reasonable proximity to local job centers. You can view the study here:

Washington, DC

Lisa Sturtevant, PhD, and Jeannette Chapman of the George Mason University School of Public Policy Center for Regional Analysis in Fairfax, VA, produced a study showing that the Washington DC area will need to add 548,298 new housing units between 2012 and 2032 to accommodate the expected growth in employment. You can view their work here:

San Francisco

A report prepared by RCLCO (Robert Charles Lesser & Co.) for the ULI Terwilliger Center for Workforce Housing found that, if current trends are any indication, housing production between 2009 and 2025 will leave a total shortage of almost 29,000 workforce housing units in San Francisco. Read the full report here: Documents/Priced-Out- San-Francisco- FINAL.pdf


The Terwilliger Center for Housing has published reports examining metropolitan marketplaces where the high cost of housing significantly constrains the residential mobility of households earning between 60 and 120 percent of AMI. In housing markets including
Boston, San Francisco, and Washington, DC, high land prices, high demand, and exclusionary zoning practices often conspire to effectively “price out” workforce households. The challenge is especially acute near transit and employment nodes. You can read the reports here: center-for-housing/research/affordability-challenge/workforce- housing-in- high-cost- markets/


Research published by Freddie Mac predicts that around 440,000 additional apartments will be needed each year for the next 10 years to meet coming demand for workforce housing. You can view the report here: